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Definition and History of the Grand Slam - The Grand Slam is the expression used to describe the achievement of winning the four major tennis championships - Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon and US Open - in the same calendar year.

The term Grand Slam was first employed by New York journalist John Kieran to describe Australian Jack Crawford's attempts in 1933 to capture all four titles. However, the Grand Slam was actually achieved first in 1938 by American Donald Budge.

Great Britain's Fred Perry was the first player to have won all four tournaments, but not in a calendar year. He held the US singles title in 1933, 1934 and 1936, and the Wimbledon title in 1934, 1935 and 1936. He claimed the Australian title in 1934 and the French title in 1935.

Since Donald Budge, four players have captured the Grand Slam: Maureen Connolly (1953), Rod Laver as an amateur (1962) and as a professional (1969), Margaret Court (1971) and Steffi Graf (1988). In doubles, the only pairs to achieve this feat are Frank Sedgman and Ken McGregor (1951), and in mixed doubles Margaret Smith Court and Ken Fletcher won the Grand Slam (1963).

The tournament was first played in 1905 as The Australasian Championships, became the Australian Championships in 1927 and the Australian Open in 1969. Since 1905, The Championships have been staged at six different venues as follows: Melbourne [55 times], Sydney [17 times] Adelaide [14 times], Brisbane [eight times], Perth [three times] and New Zealand [twice] in 1906 & 1912.

In 1972, it was decided to stage the Tournament in the one city each year, as opposed to visiting various states across the nation, and the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club was selected due to Melbourne attracting the biggest patronage.

Melbourne Park (formerly Flinders Park) was constructed in time for the 1988 Open to meet the demands of the evolving tournament that had outgrown Kooyong's capacity. The move to Flinders Park was an immediate success, with a 90 per cent increase in attendance in 1988 (266,436) on the previous year at Kooyong (140,000).

Trophies are presented to all winners of the major events. The men's champion receives the Norman Brookes Challenge Cup; the women's champion the Daphne Akhurst Memorial Cup.

Wilson supplies more than 4000 dozen tennis balls for use during the tournament. Six new balls are used for the five-minute warm-up and the first seven games and six new balls are provided every nine games thereafter. Used balls are sold on site.

Prior to the 2000 tournament, the centre court was christened Rod Laver Arena.

The $65-million development of Vodafone Arena was one of the most significant advancements in the Open's history. The tournament could now boast claim to a second state-of-the-art facility. The highlight of both stadiums is the presence of a retractable roof. This feature ensures that play can continue irrespective of inclement weather.

The retractable roof has been such a hit in the world of tennis that Wimbledon is now following our lead, with the Centre Court undergoing a radical re-development, including the installation of a similar roof. The tournament, which has so often plagued by poor weather, has taken a leaf out of our bookin attempt to array the fears of organisers.

 
Current Grand Slam venues:
Australian Open - Melbourne Park, MELBOURNE
French Open - Stade Roland Garros, PARIS
Wimbledon Championships - Wimbledon, LONDON
US Open - Flushing Meadows, NEW YORK
 RECORDS
 Youngest Champions
Men's singles: Ken Rosewall (18 years, 2 months) in 1953
Women's singles: Martina Hingis (16 years, 3 months) in 1997
Men's doubles: Lew Hoad (18 years, 2 months) in 1953
Women's doubles: Mirjana Lucic (15 years, 10 months) in 1998
Mixed doubles: Venus Williams (17 years, 7 months) in 1998
 
 Oldest Champions
Men's singles: Ken Rosewall (37 years, 2 months) in 1972
Women's singles: Thelma Long (35 years, 8 months) in 1954
Men's doubles: Norman Brookes (46 years, 2 months) in 1924
Women's doubles: Thelma Long (37 years, 7 months) in 1956
 
 Most successive singles
Men: Roy Emerson (5) 1963-1967
Women: Margaret Smith (7) 1960-1966
 
 Most successive doubles
Men: Adrian Quist (10) 1935-1950
Women: Martina Navratilova / Pam Shriver (7) 1983-1989
 
 Triple titles (singles, doubles, mixed doubles)
Men: John Hawkes 1926; Jean Borotra 1928; Jack Crawford 1932.
Women: Daphne Akhurst 1925 / 1928 / 1929; Nancye Wynne Bolton 1940/1947/1948; Thelma Long 1952; Margaret Smith 1963
 
 Junior and Senior Champions
 (singles champions who previously won junior singles title)
Men: Jack Crawford, Vivian McGrath, Adrian Quist, John Bromwich, Dinny Pails, Frank Sedgman, Ken McGregor, Ken Rosewall, Lew Hoad, Rod Laver, John Newcombe, Stefan Edberg.
Women: Joan Hartigan, Emily Westacott, Thelma Long, Beryl Penrose, Mary Carter-Reitano, Kerry Reid, Evonne Cawley, Chris O'Neil.
 
 Left-handed Singles Champions
Men: Horace Rice (1907), Norman Brookes (1911), John Hawkes (1926),Mervyn Rose (1954), Rod Laver (1960 / 1962 / 1969), Jimmy Connors (1974), Guillermo Vilas (Dec. 1978 / 1979), Roscoe Tanner (1977), Petr Korda (1998), Rafael Nadal (2009).
Women: Martina Navratilova (1981 / 1983 / 1985), Monica Seles (1991 / 1992 / 1993 / 1996).
 
 Biggest Gap between First and Last Singles Titles
Men: Ken Rosewall (20 years) 1953-1972
Women: Nancye Wynne Bolton (15 years) 1937-1951
 
 Whitewash Result
Men: (6-0 6-0 6-0)
Recorded by six men - James Anderson (first round 1925), Fred Perry (quarter final 1935), John Bromwich (first round 1949), Neale Fraser (first round 1953), Martin Mulligan (first round 1960), Richard Russell (first round 1966)
Women: (6-0 6-0)
Recorded by 20 women, including four in 1998 (Mary Pierce achieving the feat twice) and three in 2004 (Kim Clijsters, Claudine Schaul and Justine Henin-Hardenne) Margaret Court achieved the feat four times and Wendy Turnbull three times. Francesca Schiavone def. Maria Sanchez-Lorenzo (2006), Clijsters defeated Vasilisa Bardina (2007), Vera Zvonareva def. Edina Gallovits (2009), Dominika Cibulkova def. Chanelle Scheepers (2009), Maria Jose Martinez Sanchez def. Evgeniya Rodina (2010), Marion Bartoli def. Tathiana Garbin (2011), Kim Clijsters def. Dinara Safina (2011).
 
 Unseeded Champions
Men: Mark Edmondson (1976)
Women: Chris O'Neil (1978), Venus Williams (2007)
 
 Champions Abroad but not at Home
(Seven former Australian players who won Grand Slam singles titlesoverseas but failed to capture their native crown)
Neale Fraser: three-times Australian runner-up (Wimbledon and US champion)
Fred Stolle: twice Australian runner-up (French and US champion)
Mal Anderson: twice Australian runner-up (US champion)
Tony Roche: Australian semi finalist (French champion)
Lesley Turner Bowrey: twice Australian runner-up (French champion)
Pat Cash: twice Australian runner-up (Wimbledon champion)
Pat Rafter: Australian semi finalist (US champion)
 
 Oddity
John Newcombe won three Wimbledon titles and one US crown before winning the Australian Open at Melbourne in 1973

Rhys Gemmell (1921 men's singles champion) is the only Australian-born champion not to have played Davis Cup for his country

The 1998 Australian Open saw two of the five senior titles won by wildcards - Martina Hingis / Mirjana Lucic in the women's doubles and Justin Gimelstob / Venus Williams in the mixed doubles
 
 Most number of Games in Final
Men's singles: 71 games: Gerald Patterson d. John Hawkes 3-6 6-4 3-618-16 6-3 in 1927 (Melbourne)
Women's singles: 38 games: Daphne Akhurst d. Sylvia Harper 10-8 2-6 7-5in 1930 (Melbourne)
Men's doubles: 87 games: Roy Emerson / Fred Stolle d. John Newcombe /Tony Roche 7-9 6-3 6-8 14-12 12-10 in 1966 (Sydney)
Women's doubles: 37 games: Esna Boyd / Meryl O'Hara Wood d. DaphneAkhurst / Marjorie Cox 6-3 6-8 8-6 in 1926 (Adelaide)
Mixed doubles: 45 games: Jack Crawford / Marjorie Cox Crawford d.Ellsworth Vines / Margorie Van Ryn 3-6 7-5 13-11 in 1933 (Melbourne)
 
 Least Number of Games in Final
Men's singles: 23 games: Pat O'Hara Wood d. CB St John 6-1 6-1 6-3 in1923 (Brisbane); John Hawkes d. Jim Willard 6-1 6-3 6-1 in 1926
Women's singles: 14 games: Margaret Smith d. Jan Lehane 6-0 6-2 in 1962(Sydney); Steffi Graf d. Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario 6-0 6-2 in 1994(Melbourne)
Men's doubles: 19 games: Bob Bryan / Mike Bryan d. Mahesh Bhupathi / LeanderPaes, 6-3, 6-4 in Jan. 2011 (Melbourne)
Women's doubles: 12 games: Margaret Court / Evonne Goolagong d. LesleyHunt / Joy Emerson 6-0 6-0 in 1971 (Sydney)
 
 Most Number of Titles
 MenYearsS DM T
Adrian Quist1936-1950310013
Jack Crawford1929-193544311
John Bromwich1938-195028111
Roy Emerson1961-19696309
John Newcombe1965-1976251*8
 
 WomenYearsS DMT
Margaret Court1960-197311 8 3*21
Nancye Wynne Bolton1926-1951610 420
Thelma Long1936-1958212 418
Daphne Akhurst1924-193054 413
Martina Navratilova1975-200338 112
Evonne Cawley1971-198345 09
Serena Williams1998-201054 09
 
(* includes one shared title)
 
 Winning Countries - Singles Titles
 CountryMenWomen
Australia5043
USA1722
Sweden70
Great Britain53
Switzerland33
Czech Republic32 - Includes Czechoslovakia
New Zealand20
Argentina20
Germany24
South Africa20
Russia21
Serbia20
France12
Spain10
Belgium02
Yugoslavia03
 
 Performance of Top Seeds
The Tournament went Open for the first time in 1969, so it is worth noting the performance of the top seeds since then: (NB: No tournament was held in 1986, due to the switch of the Tournament from December to January).
 YearMen's Singles
1969 Rod Laver won
1970 Tony Roche lost QF to Roger Taylor
1971 Rod Laver lost 3R to Mark Cox
1972 John Newcombe lost QF to Mal Anderson
1973 Ken Rosewall lost 2R to Karl Meiler
1974 John Newcombe to QF to Ross Case
1975 Jimmy Connors lost F to John Newcombe
1976 Ken Rosewall lost SF to Mark Edmondson
1977 Guillermo Vilas lost F to Roscoe Tanner
1978 Vitas Gerulaitis won
1978 Guillermo Vilas won
1979 Guillermo Vilas won
1980 Guillermo Vilas lost QF to Kim Warwick
1981 Guillermo Vilas lost 3R to Hank Pfister
1982 Johan Kriek won
1983 Ivan Lendl lost F to Mats Wilander
1984 Ivan Lendl lost 4R to Kevin Curren
1985 Ivan Lendl lost SF to Stefan Edberg
1987 Ivan Lendl lost SF to Pat Cash
1988 Ivan Lendl lost SF to Pat Cash
1989 Mats Wilander lost 2R to Ramesh Krishnan
1990 Ivan Lendl won
1991 Stefan Edberg lost SF to Ivan Lendl
1992 Stefan Edberg lost F to Jim Courier
1993 Jim Courier won
1994 Pete Sampras won
1995 Pete Sampras lost F to Andre Agassi
1996 Pete Sampras lost 3R to Mark Philippoussis
1997 Pete Sampras won
1998 Pete Sampras lost QF to Karol Kucera
1999 Marcelo Rios withdrew prior to the start of the tournament (injury)
2000 Andre Agassi won
2001 Gustavo Kuerten lost 2R to Greg Rusedski
2002 Lleyton Hewitt lost 1R to Alberto Martin
2003 Lleyton Hewitt lost 4R to Younes El Aynaoui
2004 Andy Roddick lost SF to Marat Safin
2005 Roger Federer lost SF to Marat Safin
2006 Roger Federer won
2007 Roger Federer won
2008 Roger Federer lost SF to Novak Djokovic
2009 Rafael Nadal won
2010 Roger Federer won
2011 Rafael Nadal lost QF to David Ferrer
 
 YearWomen's Singles
1969 Billie Jean King lost F to Margaret Smith Court
1970 Margaret Smith Court won
1971 Margaret Smith Court won
1972 Evonne Goolagong lost F to Virginia Wade
1973 Margaret Smith Court won
1974 Chris Evert lost F to Evonne Goolagong
1975 Margaret Smith Court lost QF to Martina Navratilova
1976 Evonne Cawley won
1977 Dianne Fromholtz lost F to Kerry Reid
1978 Evonne Cawley won
1978 Sue Barker lost QF to Diane Evers
1979 Virginia Ruzici lost 1R to Mary Sawyer
1980 Martina Navratilova lost SF to Wendy Turnbull
1981 Chris Evert lost F to Martina Navratilova
1982 Martina Navratilova lost F to Chris Evert
1983 Martina Navratilova won
1984 Martina Navratilova lost SF to Helena Sukova
1985 Chris Evert lost F to Martina Navratilova
1987 Martina Navratilova lost F to Hana Mandlikova
1988 Steffi Graf won
1989 Steffi Graf won
1990 Steffi Graf won
1991 Steffi Graf lost QF to Jana Novotna
1992 Monica Seles won
1993 Monica Seles won
1994 Steffi Graf won
1995 Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario lost F to Mary Pierce
1996 Monica Seles won
1997 Steffi Graf lost 4R to Amanda Coetzer
1998 Martina Hingis won
1999 Lindsay Davenport lost SF to Amelie Mauresmo
2000 Martina Hingis lost F to Lindsay Davenport
2001 Martina Hingis lost F to Jennifer Capriati
2002 Jennifer Capriati won
2003 Serena Williams won
2004 Justine Henin-Hardenne won
2005 Lindsay Davenport lost F to Serena Williams
2006 Lindsay Davenport lost QF to Justine Henin-Hardenne
2007 Maria Sharapova lost F to Serena Williams
2008 Justine Henin lost QF to Maria Sharapova
2009 Jelena Jankovic lost 4R to Marion Bartoli
2010 Serena Williams won
2011 Caroline Wozniacki lost SF Lia Na
 
 Championships won from Match Point Down
Margaret Molesworth survived a match point at 5-6 in final set of semifinal against Sylvia Lance

Gerald Patterson saved four match points at 12-13 and one at 15-16 in fourth set before beating John Hawkes in final Dinny Pails saved a match point at 5-6 in fifth set against John Bromwich in finals

Mary Carter survived a match point in defeating Thelma Long in final Rod Laver at 4-5 in fourth set saved a match point to defeat Neale Fraser in final

John Newcombe defeated Tony Roche in semifinal after Roche held two match points at 5-2 and one more at 8-7; Newcombe defeated Jimmy Connors in the final

Johan Kriek survived match point in semifinal against Paul McNamee at 3-5 in fifth set before going on to defeat Steve Denton in final

Stefan Edberg saved two match points in the fourth round against Wally Masur before defeating Mats Wilander in final

Monica Seles defeated Mary Joe Fernandez in semifinal after saving a match point at 5-6 30-40 in third set; Seles defeated Jana Novotna in the final

Jennifer Capriati saved three match points in the final against Martina Hingis and then went on to claim the women's singles title
 
 Longest Singles Match
Number of games: 93 games: In 1970 Dennis Ralston d. John Newcombe in QF 19-17 20-18 4-6 6-3 in a match lasting 281 minutes Duration: 314 minutes: Rafael Nadal d. Fernando Verdasco in semifinals 6-7 6-4 7-6 6-7 6-4 in 2009
 
 Longest Doubles Match
Duration: 329 minutes: In 1990 Pieter Aldrich / Danie Visser d. ScottDavis / Robert Van't Hof 6-4 4-6 7-6 4-6 23-21, the deciding set lasting173 minutes
 
 Most Dominant Male Champion
Tony Wilding, in winning the 1909 title in Perth won 73 games andconceded only 11 in recording four straight sets victories
 
 Champions without loss of a set
Men: Tony Wilding (1909), Rodney Heath (1910), Pat O'Hara Wood (1923),Donald Budge (1938), John Bromwich (1939), Roy Emerson (1964), KenRosewall (1971), Roger Federer (2007)
Women: Margaret Molesworth (1922), Daphne Akhurst (1926, 1928), CoralButtsworth (1932), Joan Hartigan (1934, 1936), Dorothy Bundy (1938),Emily Westacott (1939), Nancye Bolton (1946, 1947, 1948, 1951), MaureenConnolly (153), Thelma Long (1954), Shirley Fry (1957), Angela Mortimer(1958), Mary Carter-Reitano (1959), Margaret Court (1961, 1962, 1963,1964, 1966, 1970, 1973), Nancy Richey (1967), Billie Jean King (1968),Virginia Wade (1972), Evonne Goolagong Cawley (1975, 1976, Dec. 1977),Chris O'Neil (1978), Steffi Graf (1988, 1989, 1994), Martina Hingis(1997), Lindsay Davenport (2000), Maria Sharapova (2008)
 
 First to retain title
Men: James Anderson 1925
Women: Margaret Molesworth 1923
 
 First Overseas Champions
Men: Fred Alexander 1908 (Sydney)
Women: Dorothy Round 1935 (Melbourne)

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